Historians classify 3 ages of human civilization:
- stone age
- bronze age
- iron age
The stone age is further divided into:
These classifications were created to help describe human behaviour including; social organization, food sources exploited, adaptation to climate, adoption of agriculture, cooking, settlement and religion. Australia remained in the Stone Age until European contact in the 17th century. (source)
Reading through current books, articles and texts on prehistoric times, including archaeology, incredibly there is not even a specific category listed in the index on “women.” (source)
Many modern scholars are now attributing to women inventions that previously were credited to men. Women were the earliest inventors of tools. Women used bones and stones, which have been found, but lengths of wood they used to dig up roots have not survived except for the ones that were pointed and fire-hardened. There was no ownership of women and no demands on women’s sexual exclusivity. Men in hunting and gathering societies did not command or exploit women’s labor.
The ‘stone-age’ communities such as Hacilar circa 5800 B.C. people lived in two-storey houses, often thirty feet in length, arranged about a central courtyard, with ovens, kitchens, hearths upstairs and down, verandas overlooking the courtyard and numerous other ‘civilized’ features. Furthermore, these societies were not separate developments, but as the great Indologist, Ananda Coomaraswamy, points out, the fruits of “a common cultural inheritance throughout an area extending from Mesopotamia to Egypt and the Ganges to the Mediterranean” based upon “the worship of the Great Mother”.
Archaeologists of Matrifocal pre-Minoan Crete are also struck by the marked absence of signs of warfare, in sharp contradistinction to all comparable societies in which the male image predominated. Also striking is the fact that when, at a later period, male images begin to dominate, fortifications and weapons of death and warfare appear at the same time.
Until about 3500 BCE, matriarchal goddesses cultures were still widespread from the Indus valley in India to old Europe.
With the coming of the Bronze Age, the old universal oneness was gradually being replaced by patriarchal power games. (source)
There was a time before male dominance and the gods of war, which constitutes the very basis of our civilization and the vast majority of our history. (source)
Two thousand years ago, we lived in a world of Gods and Goddesses. Today, we live in a world solely of Gods. Women in most cultures have been stripped of their spiritual power (Dan Brown)
In all myth throughout the world, the original Creator is feminine. It is only with the coming of a masculine-dominated (patriarchal) social system that She is replaced by a male god. Sometimes as in the case of Tiamat She is said to have been conquered or killed by the new god. Sometimes the patriarchy boldly changed the sex of the Deity without changing the name—as with Ea in Syria, Shiva in India or Atea in Polynesia. Sometimes the goddess was slowly edged out and the god edged in for example Thoth becoming the primary figure with the similar responsibilities as Ma’at.
It is remarkable that the many varied and highly expert author-archaeologists in the excellent series Ancient People and Places express their wonder at the evidence they have found that women were once pre-eminent in each of their areas of research, from the Near East to Ireland. Each writes as if this ancient dominance of women were unique and peculiar to his archaeological province. Yet taken all together these archaeological finds prove that feminine pre-eminence was a universal, and not a localised, phenomenon. Elizabeth Gould Davis (source)
William Bond calls what we now call the Stone Age or the Neolithic Age as the Golden Age, because of the lack of fortifications nor any weapons of war, nor any graves with people showing signs of violence. Also the whole process of birth from the sex act to breast feeding was celebrated as something divine, holy and sacred rather than becoming taboo or being seen as unclean, sinful and dirty.(source)
Ma’at’s equivalent Thoth