Ma’at the Goddess that represents truth, law, order and harmony

Ma’at represents law, order and love. In the kemetic philosophical view law was not about force and punishment. Instead it is the natural outcome of love which is, in the words of Ra Un Nefer Amen , the expression of our oneness with each other and with God. (source)

For the beginner, it is a little difficult as I sift through all the material to digest who or what Ma’at is. In some texts it is clear that she is a Ancient Egyptian Goddess. In other texts she is hardly mentioned, and only referred to as a concept. I believe her omnipresence throughout ancient Egyptian life confounded some western anthropologists, who diminished her role as a Goddess. Most books on Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses in new-age bookstores don’t even list her. However, it is clear that as all Gods are associated with concepts, and looking at the omnipresence of Ma’at in Ancient Egyptian lives to realize her importance as an Ancient Egyptian Goddess. Even though many consider her to “merely be a concept”

  • Ma’at was thought to come into existence at the moment of creation, having no creator and made the order of the entire universe from the pandemonium.(source)
  • The Goddess Ma’at was most cherished by the rulers of ancient Egypt, and most of them were referred to as “Beloved of Ma’at.” Pharaohs would carry an effigy of Ma’at seated as a sign that he represented her regime. (source)
  • Every pharaoh agreed to uphold the laws of order known as ma’at. (source)
  • Ma’at is seen as the substance on which gods live, they nourish themselves with Ma’at. Order and justice are the responsibilities of the gods and they can perform them only when they are “full” of Ma’at. (source)
  • Ancient egyptian sages and scribes clearly saw themselves as officials serving Ma’at
  • The amulet of Ma’at is worn around the neck by high officials
  • The concept of Ma’at unites all of life in Egypt. Ma’at is at the core of religious, political, and social values. Because it is the center of ritual activity, it is necessary for navigating the afterlife.
  • Because it is the center of ethics, its performance and internationalization in the heart of the individual are weighed at the final judgment against the cosmic standard, which is Ma’at herself.
  • Thus achieving Ma’at is the goal of life and is key to eternal blessing in the afterlife
  • Maat was also personified as a goddess regulating the stars, seasons, and the actions of both mortals and the deities, who set the order of the universe from chaos at the moment of creation. (source)

It appears that over time Ma’at was represented by Thoth:

“In the later history of ancient Egypt, Thoth became heavily associated with the arbitration of godly disputes, the arts of magic, the system of writing, the development of science,and the judgment of the dead.”[wikipedia]

Later, as a goddess in other traditions of the Egyptian pantheon, where most goddesses were paired with a male aspect, her masculine counterpart was Thoth, as their attributes are similar.[wikipedia]



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Kemet the root of chemistry and alchemy

Both ‘chemical’ and ‘hermetic’ are linked to alchemy. The word ALCHEMY comes via Old French and medieval Latin from Arabic ‘alkimiya,’ ‘al,’ the +‘kimiya,’ which comes from the Greek ‘khemia’ or ‘khemeia’ meaning ‘the art of transmuting metals.’ In early use ‘alchemy’ referred to the chemistry of the Middle ages and 16th century. (source)

“Kemet” was the native Egyptian name for Egypt. It was the word for “black” and significantly, the word used to distinguish the fertile Nile lands from the red desert soils. Some think that the Greeks then called the Egyptian (“black”) art “Chêmia,” to mean “the Egyptian art” (“χημεία”). The earliest known use of the word “khemeia” was in a decree issued by the Roman Emperor Diocletian (c. 300), to burn all such Egyptian books. (source)

“Khem” alludes to the black soil of the Nile delta. Esoterically the word refers to the primordial or First Matter (the Khem). Alchemy is the Great Work of nature that perfects this chaotic matter, whether it be expressed as the metals, the cosmos, or the very substance of our souls. (source)

Not the Qabalah (Jewish or Christian), but the Ancient Egyptian Mystery Tradition (or Kemetism) is the backbone of the Western Tradition of Alchemy. (source)

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Ancient Egyptians were black

This should not ever even have been a question. That Egyptians might once have been claimed to be Caucasians seems nonsensical. Kemet is the word Ancient Egyptians referred to themselves.

Western historians, however, say that the word “Kemet” refers to the color of the soil of the land rather than its people. But, the word “Kemet” is actually an ethnic term being a derivative of the word “Khem” (Cham or Ham) which means “burnt” or “black.” (source)

Of course our definition of black is different compared to Ancient times for example, black was likely not considered to be related to Africa at that point in time.

Egypt is a word meaning “Black.” (source)

Egyptologist Cheikh Anta Diop suffered a lot of criticism and academic rejection for his theories which are now mostly proven true, tests that show ancient Egyptians were black include:

  • Evidence from Physical Anthropology
  • Melanin Dosage Test
  • Osteological Evidence
  • Evidence From Blood Types
  • The Egyptians as They Saw Themselves
  • Divine Epithets
  • Evidence From the Bible
  • Cultural unity of Egypt With The Rest of Africa
  • Linguistic Unity With Southern and Western Africa
  • Testimony of Classical Greek and Roman Authors

Revisionist history can be so fascinating to unravel.

It is interesting to compare the Ancient Egyptians to the current Arabic Egyptians of today.


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Role of women in ancient Egyptian society

Ancient Egypt is generally recognized as having a society that respected women very favourably especially when compared to their neighbours in that era, or even compared to some societies in the modern era.

However, it appears that the role of women were more favourable in the earlier dynasties leading up to the age of pyramid building. Afterwards as the civil administration and infighting between nobles grew, women’s roles lessened.

Some list men and women’s professions as such: (source)

Ancient Egyptian jobs for men

  • bakers
  • scribes
  • priests
  • nobelmen
  • soldiers
  • farmers
  •  merchants

Ancient Egyptian jobs for women are listed as:

  • weavers
  • musicians
  • domestic helpers

However some sources seem to forget that women were the main bakers and beer makers. Beer was of central importance to ancient Egyptian society. Wages were often paid in beer. (source)

Bread- and beer-making (made of fermented bread) were usually women’s tasks. Twelfth dynasty of Egypt, 2050-1800 BCE.

Some view these duties as proof that women were domesticated and thus had an inferior position in society (source) it may be our current societal bias that views people that stay at home as less important in the society. Considering that the women were basically the banks of ancient Egypt, their roles may not have been seen as inferior as we think.

Women played an essential role at the highest levels (source). Another reason that current scholars may have misinterpreted the role of women in Ancient Egypt, was the negative connotation of women in literature. However, as wikipedia points out, the same treatment applied to the pharoah. Sometimes we use literature of the day to mock those in power.

Also, in many of ancient Egypt’s artistic depictions, a woman can be seen supporting or clasping their husband, maybe even protecting them.

Ancient Egyptian women were not subservient to men in marriage or divorce. They were free to choose the men they married and they could also divorce their husbands. Egyptian women enjoyed the same economic rights as men and therefore were able to make economic decisions on their own. Property that a married woman acquired on her own was hers to dispose of as she pleased. (source)

By contrast ancient Greek women required a designated male, to represent or stand for her in all legal contracts and proceedings.

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