Knitting began in China

My boyfriend discussed how knitting is popular with the natives in Peru, and thought maybe the origin of knitting might come from that region.

I started searching the origins of knitting, tracing it back in time, and found out about an ancient form of knitting some call nalbinding. Early archaeologists were unable to distinguish nalbinding samples with knitted samples.

Turns out there might be some truth to the native Peruvians knitting being pretty ancient, for they are some of the people that still practice nalbinding . The regions that still practice are indigenous Peruvians and Finnish / Scandinavian people.

On an unrelated note, I realized that the origin of beer could be traced furthest to China, eventhough some sources refuse to acknowledge this. (source)

My mind made me curious if there was also a possibility to trace knitting back to China, knowing that the features of both the indigenous Peruvians and Finnish can be quite asiatic. (source)

To my surprise, indeed there is a connection. After doing further research it seems that the earliest trace of knitting is from China, if you consider nalbinding to be a form of knitting. Anne Marie Drecker when she visited the Provincial Museum in Urumchi, China shows a picture of one of the nalbound hats found with the mummies that is 3000 years old. (source)

Some claim that the earliest nalbinding come from a cave in Israel nearly 10,000 years old, or from Mexico around 6,5000 BC however there is no evidence that these scraps of textile were used for clothing versus netting, or a basket.

Of course as in beer making, the China angle gets skipped and nalbinding might be attributed to originating as a European endeavour. (source)

Other sources

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N%C3%A5lebinding
  • http://www.scarlette.net/sigridkitty/history.html
  • 3000 years ago in China: http://www.scarlette.net/sigridkitty/photos.html
  • good info http://heron-media.com/karen/CreatingAccessoriesWithNalbinding.PDF
  • https://books.google.ca/books?id=A8OrCAAAQBAJ&pg=PA30&lpg=PA30&dq=israel+nalbinding&source=bl&ots=KXB_2WRLIO&sig=Vvr1HtB0N4kZ5SPencmurLam9hA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi3h4fM1ovPAhUCWx4KHXxzA_QQ6AEIRDAH#v=onepage&q=israel%20nalbinding&f=false
  • https://web.archive.org/web/20091027011020/http://geocities.com/alixtiberga/
  • http://www.sca.org/ti/articles/2008/issue165/MedievalKnitting.pdf

how to:

Patterns

The origins of beer in Ancient Egypt and China

While reading up on Ancient Egyptian Goddess Ma’at, I came across reference to her as being the beer and bread to the Gods, where in Ancient Egypt beer is the de-facto drink of adults and children alike.

Turns out that modern beer and ancient Egyptian beer may share a name, but were made quite differently containing a medley of ingredients. In Egypt beer was a primary source of nutrition, and consumed daily. Beer was such an important part of the Egyptian diet that it was even used as currency. Like most modern African beers, but unlike European beer, it was very cloudy with plenty of solids and highly nutritious, quite reminiscent of gruel. It was an important source of protein, minerals and vitamins and was so valuable that beer jars were often used as a measurement of value and was used in medicine. Little is known about specific types of beer, but there is mention of, for example, sweet beer but without any specific details mentioned.

Beer archaeologist Patrick McGovern and brewer, Sam Calagione decided to use the herb mix za’atar which frequently includes the herbs found in ancient egyptian beer, which included a combination of savory, thyme and coriander. Other key ingredients might be the doum-palm fruit and chamomile. (source)

The most popular beer in Egypt was Heqet (or Hecht) which was a honey-flavored brew and their word for beer in general was zytum. The workers at the Giza plateau received beer rations three times a day and beer was often used throughout Egypt as compensation for labor. As in Mesopotamia, women were the chief brewers at first and brewed in their homes, the beer initially had the same thick, porridge-like consistency, and was brewed in much the same way. (source)

Even earlier evidence of the oldest known alcohol was discovered in China by Patrick McGovern an archaeologist from Pennsylvania. He travelled to a Neolithic burial site in China and discovered the oldest known beer—a heady blend of wild grapes, hawthorn, rice and honey that is now the basis for Dogfish Head’s Chateau Jiahu. (source)

Other sources

  • https://www.homebrewersassociation.org/zymurgy/pharaoh-ale-brewing-a-replica-of-an-ancient-egyptian-beer/
  • http://www.thekeep.org/~kunoichi/kunoichi/themestream/egypt_beer.txt
  • http://byo.com/hops/item/2155-wynkoop-brewing-co-tut%E2%80%99s-royal-gold-clone
  • http://byo.com/hops/item/2150-tutankhamun-ale-story
  • http://homebrew.stackexchange.com/questions/8107/looking-to-make-an-ancient-egyptian-brew-but-what-about-bittering-and-flavoring
  • http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/beer.html
  • https://www.oregonculinaryinstitute.com/2010/10/21/the-importance-of-beer-and-the-benefits-it-provides/
  • http://www.inquisitr.com/2112282/110-year-old-man-beers-health-benefits-the-secret-to-long-life-but-is-mark-behrends-right/
  • http://www.alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org/beer-trivia-how-much-do-you-know-about-beer/
  • https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/wordofmouth/2010/oct/27/old-ale-beer-history
  • http://fathom.lib.uchicago.edu/2/21701778/
  • http://www.crystalinks.com/egyptmedicine.html
  • http://io9.gizmodo.com/could-you-drink-beer-instead-of-water-and-still-survive-457081579
  • http://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~rwest/link-suggestion/wpcd_2008-09_augmented/wp/b/Beer.htm
  • https://books.google.ca/books?id=iPveCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA8&lpg=PA8&dq=health+benefit+of+ancient+egyptian+beer&source=bl&ots=znKpMB9uHt&sig=T9D-zXs4U3cYxvvMUCiqReSfclY&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjet8nB8dLOAhXFpR4KHbXDCkg4ChDoAQgrMAM#v=onepage&q=health%20benefit%20of%20ancient%20egyptian%20beer&f=false

Putting women in their place to sell cigarettes in Flintstones cartoons

What might have started as one man’s idea on how to market cigarettes to the working man in the 60s, may have re-inforced the misogynistic notions of that era to that decades youth.

Wilma’s role is vacuuming and taking care of the kids, while Fred and Barney gets up to adventures.

It is unfortunate that this popular cartoon so successfully overturned the actual role of women in the stone age where the societies were mostly matrilineal.

Other sources

  • http://www.csmonitor.com/Technology/2010/0930/The-Flintstones-turns-50-The-five-dumbest-moments/Sexism-in-the-Flintstones
  • http://vinepair.com/wine-blog/flintstones-corporate-cartoon-busch-beer/